Rev. Charlotte Fairchild, speaker/writer

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Fear Thou Not 501(c)3 director
Murder on the Silver Comet Trail author
Fertile Prayers: Daily Fertile Prayers author

Friday, August 24, 2012

Tai Chi

(in reference to the IMAX movie that gave Andrew B. Chung the info about 2 pounds/day.) 

Andrew Chung teaches Tai Chi in several places.
Food for 7 days (23 oz per day x 6 "full" days): 137.00             
     (first morning, fill-up with high-octane food
      at the trailhead & the last night, feast at the
      local pizzeria or whatever)

In terms of the best recommendations for ongoing treks and sustained energy, Carolyn Gunn, the author of the Expedition Cookbook (Hanson, p. 17), suggests planning for 4,000 calories per person per day for a trip such as Denali, in the ratio of 60-65% carbs, 20-25% fat and 10-15% protein (what amounts to about 2 pounds of food per person, per day, not counting packaging.) Expenditure can be as high as 6000 calories/day, depending on altitude, extreme temperatures, and performance requirements for any given day (NAMOHAE). The raw energy requirements increase 15-50% over that needed at sea-level for comparable exertion, and will obviously depend on the size and gender of the individual; a 115 pound woman, for example, won’t need as much food as a 175 pound man, assuming they’re doing comparable work. At the same time, food intakes typically fall 10-50% during altitude exposure, depending on the rapidity of ascent and the individual’s susceptibility to altitude illness such as AMS (acute mountain sickness). (Askew, p. 1)

Because my physics days are behind me, I’ll skip the math and venture a reasonable estimate of 1800 calories required for this feat.
If you only packed carbohydrates or proteins, this would require 450 grams of food (1800 calories / 4 calories per gram), which works out to be 1 pound of food. However, if you read this article, you would know that fats are more energy dense, and you would have packed those instead. This means you would only need 200 grams of food (1800 calories / 9 calories per gram), which is only 0.44 pounds. Just by changing your fuel source, or the type of food you packed, in this situation you could cut your weight from 1 pound of food to under 1/2 a pound of food, and still get the same job done! Amazing, but true!
These are “official” results from the MEDLINE database and thus have more scientific standing.
Any of the articles can be ordered through a medical library using the PMID number.
Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012 Mar;112(3):1077-86. Epub 2011 Jul 9.
Saga Nutraceuticals Research Institute, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Higashisefuri, Kanzaki, Saga 842-0195, Japan.
We compared relative exercise intensity and active energy expenditure (AEE) on trail walking in the mountains, with those of daily exercise training, and whether branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) and arginine supplementation attenuated the release of markers indicating muscle damage and declines in physical performance. Twenty-one subjects (~63 years) were divided into two groups: amino acid (AA, 51 g of amino acids and 40 g of carbohydrate, male/female = 6/4) or placebo (PL, 91 g of carbohydrate, male/female = 6/5) supplementation during 2 days of trail walking in the mountains. We measured heart rate (HR), AEE, fatigue sensation, water and food intake, and sweat loss during walking. In addition, we measured peak aerobic capacity [Formula: see text] and heart rate (HR(peak)) with graded-intensity walking, vertical jumping height (VJ) before and after walking. We found that average HR and AEE during uphill walking were ~100% HR(peak) and ~60% [Formula: see text], while they were ~80 and ~20% during downhill walking, respectively. Moreover, average total AEE per day was sevenfold that of their daily walking training. VJ after walking remained unchanged compared with the baseline in AA (P > 0.2), while it was reduced by ~10% in PL (P < 0.01), although with no significant difference in the reduction between the groups (P > 0.4). The responses of other variables were not significantly different between groups (all, P > 0.2). Thus, trail walking in the mountains required a high-intensity effort for older people, while the effects of BCAA and arginine supplementation were modest in this condition.
PMID:  21744005
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Br J Sports Med. 2010 May;44(6):430-6. Epub 2008 Jun 6.

Ad libitum adjustments to fluid intake during cool environmental conditions maintain hydration status during a 3-day mountain bike race.


Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag 7, Congella 4013, South Africa.



In this study, the hydration status of amateur cyclists who voluntarily adjusted their fluid intake to environmental conditions during a 3-day, 248-km mountain bike (MTB) race was assessed.


Prospective observational field study.


Sani2C MTB Race, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 2006.


18 randomly selected amateur, male MTB cyclists.


Reported usual fluid intake, environmental conditions, voluntary fluid intake, urine voided, changes in body mass, serum osmolality (SO), sodium concentration [Na(+)] and urinary specific gravity (Usg) during each stage (S).


Dry bulb temperature (adjusted for windchill) ranged from 6 degrees to 21.4 degrees C during S1, S2 and S3. While 77.8% (n = 14) of subjects reported a usual intake of >750 ml h(-1) in previous MTB events, mean (SE) fluid intake in this race ranged from 341 (32) ml h(-1) during S1 to 551 (56) ml h(-1) during S3. Changes in mean body mass ranged between -0.99% and -2.02% during the three stages. Mean SO and serum [Na(+)] ranged between 292 (0.73) mOsm kg(-1) and 298 mOsm kg(-1) and 137 (0.35) mEq and 140 (0.42) mEq, respectively, during the 3-day period, while Usg remained


Ad libitum fluid intake during the 2006 Sani2C MTB Race, which took place in unexpectedly cold environmental conditions, was substantially lower than the usual reported fluid intake of subjects. Changes in body mass, SO, serum [Na(+)] and Usg were not clinically significant, indicating that an adequate hydration status was maintained during the multiday MTB cycle race.
PMID:  18539653
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;618:1-11.
Department of Sport Science, Medical Section, University of Innsbruck, Austria.
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the major cause of fatalities in males over 34 years of age during hiking or downhill skiing in the mountains. The main goal of the present study was the identification of risk factors and triggers associated with SCDs during these mountain activities. Besides recording individual circumstances associated with SCD, a case-control study was performed comparing the risk factor profiles of 247 males over the age of 34 who suffered SCD during mountain hiking or downhill skiing with those of 741 matched controls. The SCD risk was greatest on the first day at altitude but altitude per se and the duration of activity did not appear to markedly modify this risk. In contrast, the longer the time from the last food and fluid intake during hiking, the higher was the SCD risk. Early cardio-pulmonary resuscitation was started in 33% of skiers and in 14 % of hikers after occurrence of unconsciousness. Hikers who died suddenly during mountain hiking were much more likely to have had a prior myocardial infarction (MI) (17% vs. 0.9%), known coronary artery disease (CAD) without prior MI (17% vs. 4%), diabetes (6% vs. 1%), hypercholesterolemia (54 % vs. 20%), and were also less engaged in regular mountaineering activities (31% vs. 58%) compared with hikers from the control group (all P < 0.001). Skiers who suffered SCD had much more frequently a prior MI (41% vs. 1.5%), hypertension (50% vs. 17%), known CAD without prior MI (9% vs. 3%), and were less engaged in regular strenuous exercise (4% vs. 15%) when compared to controls (all P < 0.05). These findings enable identification of skiers and hikers at increased SCD-risk and recommendation of preventive measures, e.g. pharmacological interventions and adaptation to specific mountain activities. They also underline the need for intensified cardio-pulmonary resuscitation training for all mountaineers.
PMID:  18269184
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004 Apr;91(4):493-8. Epub 2004 Feb 11.
Colworth House, Unilever R&D Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK44 1LQ, UK.
The effect of drinking tea on hydration status and mood was studied in nine male and four female members of expeditions based at Mt. Everest base camp at an altitude of 5,345 m. Whilst exposed to altitude-cold diuresis, participants were subjected to a crossover experimental design comprising two 24-h dietary interventions. In the "tea" condition, hot brewed tea formed a major part of fluid intake, whereas in the "no-tea" condition tea was excluded from the diet. Subjects were prohibited in both cases from consuming other caffeinated beverages, caffeinated foods, and alcoholic drinks. Mean fluids ingested [mean (SE); tea=3,193 (259) ml versus no tea=3,108 (269) ml] and urine volume (tea=2,686 (276) ml versus no tea=2,625 (342) ml] were similar under both conditions. Statistical analysis found no difference in urine stimulated as a result of the tea intervention (P=0.81). Several markers of hydration status were also taken immediately pre and post each condition, including measures of urine specific gravity, urine electrolyte balance (K+, Na+), and urine colour. None of these measures indicated a difference in hydration status as a result of the dietary intervention in either the control or tea condition. A difference was, however, found in mood, with subjects reporting reduced fatigue when tea was included in the diet (P=0.005). The study shows therefore that even when drunk at high altitude where fluid balance is stressed, there is no evidence that tea acts as a diuretic when consumed through natural routes of ingestion by regular tea drinkers, but that it does have a positive effect on mood.
PMID: 14872247
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


Int J Circumpolar Health. 1998;57 Suppl 1:742-5.
Eastern Aleutian Tribes, Inc., Akutan, Alaska, USA.
The purpose of the descriptive study was to determine the hydration status of recreational backpackers (n = 201) hiking at altitudes between 7,500 and 14,000 feet. Urine specific gravity was used to document the level of hydration of each subject entering or leaving the Bridger-Teton Wilderness. Demographic, risk, and knowledge factors were also obtained from the sample. Both pre-hike and post-hike subjects were dehydrated; pre-hike mean specific gravity was 1.018, and the post-hike mean was 1.023, showing a significant difference (t = -4.671, p < 0.0000). A small subset group (n = 10) entered both pre- and post-hike data and the findings were similar to the large group, showing a significant increase in specific gravity post-hike (t = -4.881, p < 0.0009). Interestingly, 24% (n = 130) of the post-hike males presented with hematuria.
PMID: 10093381
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Please interview the medical professionals of each child when an obese child dies in elementary school of heart failure/VAT. Ask the doctor the recommendation of weight to eat which is easy. Guessing what to eat is not easy.
--Rev. Charlotte Fairchild